N. Question Answer Timestamp Validation
1 How is defined'Soil'? Soil is a critical component of the natural environment – yet most people are totally unaware of, or underestimate, the vital role that soil biodiversity plays in the ecosystem services on which we depend.[[1]]
2 What does soil biota help with? Soil biota also help to build resilience and to control, prevent or suppress pests and diseases.[[2]]
3 What is the term "macrofauna" referred to? Macrofauna (2mm-20mm) are large soil invertebrates (earthworms, enchytraeids, woodlice, myriapods, and insect larvae). They are ecosystem engineers, moving through the soil, thus perturbing the soil and increasing water permeability, soil aeration, and creating new habitats for smaller organisms. Their faeces are hotspots for microbial diversity and activity. [[3]]
4 What are some of the practices to preserve soil biodiversity? land use, agriculture, ecosystems restoration, climate change mitigation and adaptation, pollution remediation and urban planning.[[4]]
5 What Research Centre in EU is involved in the genetic analyses of the soils ? The European Commission's Joint Research Centre study.[[5]]
6 What are some of the drivers of pressures on soil organisms?   Climate change , land use change , habitat fragmentation, intensive human exploitation, soil organic matter decline, pollution , and the introduction and diffusion of invasive alien species .[[6]]
7 What is the complexity of soil made up of?   Microorganisms, macro and megafauna .[[7]]
8 What is soil biodiversity composed of? Soil biodiversity is composed of microorganisms, macro- and megafauna.[[8]]
9 How are microbs and Microfauna present in soil solutions? Microbs and Microfauna mostly live in soil solutions in gravitational, capillary and hygroscopic water; they participate in decomposition of soil organic matter, as well as in the weathering of minerals in the soil.[[9]
10 What is the positive effect of increaing soil organisms'diversity? Increasing soil organisms’ diversity is linked to an increase in soil functions and the provision of services. This includes support to plant growth as well as higher nutrient use efficiency. [[10]]
11 How soil threats like persticides or soil-sealing or erosion differ? Some threats, like pesticides, may potentially impact only a single entity of soil-dwelling organisms, and at different levels of intensity. Other threats, such as erosion or soil sealing, can result in the complete – and in some cases irreversible – loss of habitat.[[11]]
12 What makes soil the largest reservoirs of biodidversity on Earth? 90% of living organisms in terrestrial ecosystems, including some pollinators, spend part of their life cycle in soil habitats. The variety of soil components, filled with air and water, create an incredible diversity of habitats for a myriad of different soil organisms that underpin our life on this planet.[[12]]
13 What are the functions provided by soil biodiversity? Soil formation, the retention and purification of water, nutrient cycling, the degradation of some soil contaminants and the regulation of greenhouse gases, as well as sustaining plant, animal and human health.[[13]]
14 What practices and technologies will be involved by future agricultural systems? According to The Status of the World’s Soil Resources, future agricultural systems may need to combine traditional practices, nature-based solutions and novel technologies such as artificial intelligence, DNA sequencing and microbiome-based precision farming.[[14]]
15 How many type of organisms can we find in soil? Soil organisms vary from 20nm to 20-30cm and are traditionally divided into four

size classes.[[15]]

16 What is the term "mesofauna"referred to? Mesofauna are soil microarthropods like mites, apterygota, small larvae of insects. They live in soil cavities filled with air and form coprogenic microaggregates. Mesofauna increases the surface of active biochemical interactions in the soil andparticipate in the transformation of soil organic matter.[[16]]
17 What is the term "microfauna" referred to? Microbes i.e: viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi and Microfauna like soil protozoa and nematodes mostly live in soil solutions in gravitational, capillary and hygroscopic water; they participate in the decomposition of soil organic matter, as well as in the weathering of minerals in the soil. Their diversity depends on the conditions of microhabitats and on the physicochemical properties of soil horizons.[[17]]
18 to what extent are known the components of soil? The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture report concluded that many species living in and around production systems, particularly microorganisms and invertebrates, have never been documented, it is reasonable to think that the contributions of specific biodiversity components to production systems are poorly understood. [[18]]